Sunday, November 19, 2017

HISTORY101C//UNR--Essay on Henry Clay Speech, 1847--JC LANGELLE


History 101C.1001
Univ of Nevada, Reno
Professor CB Strang
Fall 2017

Primary Source Essay: Henry Clay Speech; Lexington, Kentucky  November 13, 1847

     Deception, invasion, occupation, unfettered military action by the Commander-in-Chief; does this sound like something out of the last
decade? Hardly. It was the Mexican War  of 1846-1848. Although it was brief, casualties were staggering and war crimes allegations dominated
the subsequent treaty that ended hostilities. Before it ended, but after General Winfield Scott captured Mexico City; Henry Clay, a Kentucky
Whig who  lost to James K. Polk in the 1844 Presidential election, gave a speech in Lexington in 1847. The war developed over the annexation of
Texas into the Union along with a border dispute linked to the territory.
     In opening remarks of his speech, Clay denounced the war as illegal, precipitated by a false clause written into the preamble. However, in
a letter addressed to the Senate delivered on May 11, 1846, the President states his case for war with Mexico. In it, Polk argued that the
Mexican government had changed hands and adopted a military posture. Even as US naval forces were drawn back from Vera Cruz and the diplomat
Slidell arrived and requested a meeting with the Foreign Minister, Mexico City refused to negotiate. Following this rebuttal, Polk ordered
troops across the Rio Nueces, claiming that the border had been drawn beyond that and revenue had been agreed upon to be extracted from that
district, with a revenue officer already appointed by Congress. It was this redeployment beyond the Rio Nueces that exacerbated the conflict
when a dragoon patrol from the American camp along the Rio Bravo del Norte was ambushed and close to a dozen soldiers killed. (1)
     Inasmuch as the speech compares aggression to former empire seekers such as Alexander, Caesar and Napoleon, it is worth noting Clay’s
assertion that Congress does not have the power to intervene and halt a war once it has been declared, leaving the President alone to determine
its progress and conduct. Quoted from the speech text:
     “If it be contended that a war having been once commenced, the President of the United States may direct it to the accomplishment of any
objects he pleases, without consulting and without regard to the will of Congress, the Convention will have utterly failed in guarding the
nation against the abuses and ambition of a single individual.” (2)
     The United States would have to wait 126 years to see any kind of legislation that would address the authority of the President in the
conduct of war. The War Powers Resolution of 1973 would only check the Commander-in-Chief’s authority in undeclared wars with various
restrictions and requirements for the Executive Branch to be held liable to the Legislative Branch in the absence of consent by Congress to
engage in hostilities against a foreign adversary. Henry Clay was perhaps the most visionary politician of his time to discover this flaw in
the Constitution that allowed even the most altruistic leader the opportunity to become a despot. (3)
     Clay then turns his attention toward the possibility of the annexation of Mexico into the US empire, steadfastly arguing against such a
proposal. He cites 100,000 troops that would have to be stationed in Mexico on a continuous basis to suppress rebellion; he notes the
probability of a new political party, the Mexican vote, in Congress, that would undermine the interests of the nation to the north as a whole.
He offers the conflict that would be created by the Catholic nation below the Rio Grande being ruled by the Protestant nation to the north and
finally, the rejection of slavery into Mexico. The issue of slavery is examined in detail in the speech and not just from the interests of the
plantation owners. Clay indirectly refutes the abolitionist demand for immediate emancipation, claiming the slaves were too ignorant and
disorganized to contribute to the society. In addition, the fact that slaves were, if not dominant numerically in some states, they would be a
significant force to be reckoned with if they were given the vote.
     All of this he rationalized into the calculus of annexation of Mexico and in the end, Clay introduces resolutions that he believed would
prevent the United States from entering into costly wars, both in the lives of soldiers and the national debt. Looking back on this incredibly
visionary speech, one can only become speechless himself that most of what Henry Clay warned against and proposed has fallen on deaf ears.

REFERENCES:
(1) The Congressional Globe, 1846.
https://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=llcg&fileName=016/llcg016.db&recNum=830
(2) Speech of Henry Clay, Lexington Mass Meeting, 1847
https://archive.org/details/speechofhenryclay00inclay
(3) War Powers Resolution 1973
http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/warpower.asp

    
     Image result for HENRY CLAY
    

Sunday, November 12, 2017

"OFF LIMITS"" Public Anth Net--READER REMARKS--

-- The student's position is clear after reading but it is not explicitly stated in their opinion piece, so I find it difficult to explain their message in a sentence or two.

-- The student effectively argues their point by using real world examples that resonate with me and but does not really convince me to value their position because it is unclear what exactly their position is.

-- The student does not state their main point in the first few sentences of the piece and does not effectively summarize the piece's main arguments in the final paragraph.

-- The student's writing is clear but it distracts from their arguments when grammatical mistakes are made. The student's voice and perspective come though in a convincing way but I can't identify the position they take.

-- The student appears to be venting about something that bothers them.

-- The paper was very detailed, but the point that the author is trying to convey is slightly difficult to understand

-- The paper did highlight some important topic, however specific examples could have been used to convince the value of the author's position

-- Although the main point was not capture in the first sentence, the author did a great job of catching my attention. The opening sentence hooked me right in and I was very interested in reading the rest of the paper. The main point was summarized at the end

-- The author did an excellent job with how they wrote this paper. The writing is clear and the tone is very present. There were also little to no grammatical errors

-- It was clear from the paper that the author was polite and respectful especially towards the other side of the argument

-- This paper was poorly written because the write up did not have a strong focus on any argument at hand. As well, there were no references and there was no analysis on behalf of any arguments.

-- This paper had average attention to detail in which there times the arguments were not backed up.

-- This paper had strong arguments which were backed up by evidence from the sources.

-- This paper had strong arguments which were backed up by evidence from the sources. 


THE ORIGINAL POST--"OFF LIMITS"--


http://therefusenik.blogspot.com/2017/11/off-limits-anthropology-101-essay-by-jc.html

Thursday, October 26, 2017

ANTHROPOLOGY 101--Castes and Karl Marx--ECONOMIC, NOT SOCIAL, STRATIFICATION

Following from Das Kapital-- Volume One--
https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1867-c1/ch14.htm#n4




Chapter Fourteen: Division of Labour and Manufacture--


SECTION 2 THE DETAIL LABOURER AND HIS IMPLEMENTS


Manufacture, in fact, produces the skill of the detail labourer, by reproducing, and systematically driving to an extreme within the workshop, the naturally developed differentiation of trades which it found ready to hand in society at large. On the other hand, the conversion of fractional work into the life-calling of one man, corresponds to the tendency shown by earlier societies, to make trades hereditary; either to petrify them into castes, or whenever definite historical conditions beget in the individual a tendency to vary in a manner incompatible with the nature of castes, to ossify them into guilds. Castes and guilds arise from the action of the same natural law, that regulates the differentiation of plants and animals into species and varieties, except that, when a certain degree of development has been reached, the heredity of castes and the exclusiveness of guilds are ordained as a law of society.  (Footnote 4)--


Footnote 4--The arts also have ... in Egypt reached the requisite degree of perfection. For it is the only country where artificers may not in any way meddle with the affairs of another class of citizens, but must follow that calling alone which by law is hereditary in their clan.... In other countries it is found that tradesmen divide their attention between too many objects. At one time they try agriculture, at another they take to commerce, at another they busy themselves with two or three occupations at once. In free countries, they mostly frequent the assemblies of the people.... In Egypt, on the contrary, every artificer is severely punished if he meddles with affairs of State, or carries on several trades at once. Thus there is nothing to disturb their application to their calling.... Moreover, since, they inherit from their forefathers numerous rules, they are eager to discover fresh advantages” (Diodorus Siculus: Bibl. Hist. I. 1. c., 74.)


NOTE--Such also appears the role of  (the) Anthropology (clan) as it attempt to justify its relevance from a holistic standpoint by borrowing concepts and theories from other disciplines.

Monday, October 2, 2017

NEW WORLD TIMELINE--British--TO REVOLUTION







Map of Pontiac Rebellion, 1763--of the roughly 15 British forts, half were taken by the natives.


1607
English colonists land May 24 at Jamestown, Virginia, under the patent of the London Company.
1613
The Dutch build a permanent trading post on lower Manhattan Island and a fort on the tip of the island for the protection of the lucrative Dutch fur trading activities with the Indians.
1617
The Dutch continue their settlement activity along the Hudson River, moving Fort Nassau at Castle Island across to the west bank of the Hudson, locating the fort at present-day Albany.
1619
At Jamestown, 20 blacks were landed to be sold as indentured servants.
1620
The Mayflower anchors off Plymouth on December 21, and the colonists from England begin to disembark.
1623
Settlements are established in New Hampshire and Maine.
1630
Inland migration begins following a wave of immigration into the Massachusetts Bay Colony. The first five ships carry about 900 colonists and the company’s charter. Some 16,000 settlers arrive during the period 1630–1642.
1634
Two ships arrive in Maryland with about 200 settlers, mostly Catholic.
1635
Settlers from Massachusetts arrive in Connecticut.
1636
Roger Williams settles at Providence, Rhode Island.
1637
Settlers destroy an Indian village of 500 in the Connecticut River Valley, bringing to an end the Pequot War.
1638
Anne Hutchinson and associates settle in Rhode Island, and Swedes settle in the Delaware Bay area.
1640 The Plymouth Colony has eight towns and 2,500 inhabitants. The Bay Colony has about 20,000 settlers.
1653
New Amsterdam incorporates as a city with over 800 residents.
1664
The Dutch surrender New Amsterdam to the British who rename it New York.
1665
There are now about 75,000 English colonists in the New World and about 3,500 French settlers.
1673
In response to King Charles’ wish that communication be established between his colonies, the first crude rid ing trail is created for mail service between Boston and New York. Named the Boston Post Road, it eventually expands into the King’s Highway.
1675
1676
King Philip’s War occurs in New England.
1677
1681
West New Jersey is settled by Quakers.
1680
New Hampshire is set apart by Massachusetts as a colony.
1681
King Charles II grants a large tract of land in North America to William Penn. At the King’s urging, Penn calls it Pennsylvania.
1682
William Penn plans Philadelphia on a gridiron pattern later adopted by many American cities. The lots are large enough for an orchard and a garden. It is settled by English Quakers and others.
1683
1684
Large numbers of settlers begin to arrive in Pennsylvania, including a few Germans. In 1684, in response to Penn’s invitation, a group of Palatines arrive in Philadelphia to settle. They found Germantown, the start of the huge German immigration into America.
1689 1697
War with France is known in North America as King William’s War.
1700
The total population of the American colonies is estimated at about 275,000 persons. This population is distributed widely over the rural areas in isolated farm settlements. Boston, with about 7,000 inhabitants, is the largest city. New York City claims about 5,000.
1700
1701
In 1700, the French construct a fort at Mackinac in Michigan to secure the French hold on the Mississippi River Valley in order to protect their route from Canada to the Louisiana Territory. Then, in 1701, they build a fort at Detroit in the Michigan Territory.
1701
1713
War with France as part of the European War of the Spanish Succession is known in North America as Queen Anne’s War.
1702
The Spanish settlement of St. Augustine is looted and burned by a force of Carolina colonists.
1707
Settlers who were German Reformed in religion establish the first Palatine settlement in the German Valley area of New Jersey.
1708
A Swiss settlement at New Bern, North Carolina, is quickly destroyed by Indians. Meanwhile, other Palatines and Germans settle in New York Colony.
1709
The Carolina proprietors grant a tract of 13,500 acres to agents representing Swiss and German Palatinate emigrants.
1710
Swiss Mennonites settle in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania.
1715
1750
The Piedmont back country is settled by Germans, Swiss, and Scots-Irish. This opens up the regions across the Allegheny Mountains back of the tidewater lands of the Atlantic coast, beyond Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and the Carolinas.
1716
The first group of black slaves arrive in the French territory of Louisiana.
1718
The French city of New Orleans is founded by Louisiana’s governor as part of an ambitious program of French expansion along the Mississippi River. New Orleans is settled by immigrants from Canada and France.
1719
Colonists from Northern Ireland and Scotland settle in Londonderry, New Hampshire.
1721
1722
A group of about 260 German colonists arrives in the French colony of Louisiana in 1721. The next year, about 250 prospective German settlers disembark at the French territory on the Gulf Coast, at the site of Mobile, Alabama.
1723
Palatines in New York Colony migrate overland to Berks County, Pennsylvania.
1723
1724
In 1723, the French erect a fort on the north bank of the Missouri River, continuing a program of intensive expansion in the Mississippi Valley Territory. The following year, they erect Fort Vincennes on the lower Wabash River to protect the route from Canada to the French settlements in the Mississippi River Valley and Louisiana.
1724
The French colony of Louisiana exiles all Jewish settlers from the colony and establishes a code to regulate the activities of the blacks.
1725
The first overland road begins as early as 1725 from Philadelphia to what becomes Lancaster and then on to Harrisburg. An improved road, the Great Conestoga Road, is commissioned to run between Philadelphia and Lancaster and is constructed between 1733 and 1741.
1725
The population of black slaves in the American colonies is about 75,000.
1726
The French erect a fort on the Mississippi at the mouth of the Illinois River, part of intensive expansion in the Mississippi River Valley. The early successes of the French in colonizing here eventually give way to competition with Carolina settlers and to repeated attacks.
1727
German and Scots-Irish immigrants, discouraged by decreasing availability of land in the northern colonies, begin to pour into the Valley of Virginia from Maryland and Pennsylvania, by way of the Great Wagon Road through the Shenandoah Valley. The road had begun as a buffalo trail, was followed by Indians as the Great Warrior Path from New York to the Carolinas, and then at Salisbury, NC, it was joined by the Indians’ Great Training Path.
1727
Carolina settlers use the Anglo-Spanish War as an excuse to attack Spanish settlements; the Spanish protest against an earlier series of forts constructed by Carolina colonists on the Altamaha, Santee, and Savannah Rivers.
1729
The French build a chain of forts along the Ohio River in order to bar increasing westward expansion of the English.
1732
Scots-Irish immigrants who had originally settled in western Pennsylvania begin to move through the Shenandoah Valley into Virginia, North and South Carolina, and Georgia.
1733
Some 40 Jewish colonists enter the newly-formed Georgia Colony and settle in Savannah.
1735
By this date, the Fall Line Road, breaking off from the King’s Highway at Fredericksburg, is carrying traffic into the interior of Virginia and the Carolinas and across into Augusta, Georgia. The “Fall Line” is a geographic feature caused by erosion, a separation line stretching from Maryland all the way to Georgia, running between the river tidelands and inland elevations on the Atlantic coast. Eventually, an adjoining road, the Richmond Road, runs from Richmond, Virginia southwest to Ft. Chissel; this provides access to the Wilderness Road into Kentucky or to the North through the Shenandoah Valley.
1736
Scottish immigrants establish the settlement of New Inverness in the Colony of Georgia, near the mouth of the Altamaha River.
1738
Virginia establishes new cities of Augusta and Frederick on the western side of the Blue Ridge Mountains.
1739
1748
War between Great Britain and Spain, commonly known as the War of Jenkin’s Ear, is known in North America as King George’s War.
1740
Famine in Ireland gives added momentum to Irish immigration to America, mainly to the Shenandoah Valley area, but also to the colonies of Virginia, Georgia, and the Carolinas.
1741
A Moravian settlement is founded at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, on the Lehigh River by immigrants who left the Georgia Colony when their settlement there failed.
1747
The Virginia-based Ohio Company is organized by Thomas Lee to open up the western territories to settlement.
1748
Frontiersmen from the Virginia Colony found Draper’s Meadows, the first permanent settlement west of the Allegheny Divide.
1749
The English Privy Council grants 200,000 acres of land in the territory between the Ohio and the Great Kanawha Rivers and the Allegheney Mountains to the Ohio Company; it stipulates that this area must be settled and a fort erected. The Ohio Company also receives a royal charter from King George II for an additional grant of 500,000 acres along the upper Ohio River.
1749
Over 4000 settlers have taken up land in the western counties of Virginia.
1749
The Colony of Virginia grants 800,000 acres west of the Virginia-North Carolina border to the Loyal Company.
1750
By this date, a continuous road exists (the King’s Highway) for stagecoach or wagon traffic from Boston to Charleston, linking all thirteen colonies. But with few bridges, and muddy roads in Spring, many parts of the road are impassable for weeks at a time.
1750
The Upper Road beginning at Fredericksburg, Virginia and continuing through Virginia and into the Carolinas, has become an important wagon route for southbound migrations into North Carolina. Following the ancient Occaneechi Indian Path, it runs west of the Fall Line Road.
1750
The interior of Connecticut and Massachusetts is so fully settled that expansion now turns to the North. This continues up to the time of the Revolutionary War with 94 new towns founded in Maine, 74 in Vermont, 100 in New Hampshire. With the best lands already taken in New York, that immigration now veers to Pennsylvania and to the southern colonies.
1750
Thomas Walker passes through and names the Cumberland Gap on his way toward the Kentucky region.
1751
A group of German Moravians buys 100,000 acres of North Carolina land near the Yadkin River. Marylanders and Pennsylvanians migrate into northwestern Carolina.
1751
Scots-Irish immigrants settle along the western foothills of the Appalachian Mountains; they erect posts along the rivers flowing into the Tennessee River.
1752
A treaty between the Colony of Virginia and the Delaware and Iroquois Indians claims for Virginia the territory south of the Ohio River; they erect a fort in the territory.
1753
Ohio Company representative Christopher Gist cuts a road through the wilderness to Red Stone Creek on the Monongahela River and encourages 11 other families to accompany him to establish a settlement along Red Stone Creek.
1753
A group of Moravians from Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, settles a large land tract in the western foothills of North Carolina.
1753
1782
Connecticut sends settlers into northeastern Pennsylvania, claiming it as part of Connecticut.
1754
1663
The Seven Years’ War is commonly known in America as the French and Indian War.
1754
The French capture the forks of the Ohio River, ending the attempts of English settlers to colonize the Ohio Territory until the end of the French and Indian War.
1754
Connecticut-based Susquehanna Company buys a large tract of land in the Wyoming Valley on the upper Susquehanna River from the Six Nations of the Iroquois League; this territory is also claimed by the heirs of William Penn.
1755
Nova Scotia’s governor orders all those Acadians who refuse to swear allegiance to the English Crown to be expelled from the colony because he fears they will support the French. 6,000 Acadians begin to leave their homes and are eventually distributed among the 13 colonies to the south, some later returning.
1755
Braddock’s Road is laid out as a military road toward Fort Duquesne (Pittsburgh) from Maryland’s deepwater ports. It follows that which George Washington had used by widening the old Nemacolin Trail. This road later becomes part of the National Road, one of the main migration routes to the West.
1757
Settlement begins in eastern Tennessee.
1758
The Forbes’ Road is laid out as a military road from Carlisle toward Pittsburgh. It later becomes one of the main migration routes to Ohio and the West.
1760
The population of the 13 colonies is estimated at about 1,600,000.
1762
In a secret treaty, French monarch Louis XV deeds to Spain all French territory west of the Mississippi River and the Isle of Orleans in Louisiana to compensate Spain for her losses at British hands.
1763
Under the Treaty of Paris which concludes the colonial and European phases of the Seven Years War, France gives up Acadia (Nova Scotia), Cape Breton, the St. Lawrence River islands and Canada to the British. France also gives England her territory east of the Mississippi River except for the New Orleans vicinity.
1763
The Mississippi Company, led by George Washington, requests a grant from the English crown of 2.5 million acres in the area of the fork of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. This land is to go to Virginia militia members as bounty grants to repay them for service in the French and Indian War.
1764 1763
With the ending of Pontiac’s Rebellion of Indian tribes, land west of the Allegheny Mountains is open and safe for white settlement.
1764
A British royal order proclaims a region west of the Connecticut River and north of the Massachusetts Colony (present-day Vermont) to be part of the territory of the New York Colony.
1766
English Auditor General of North America Cholmondely declares that the royal Proclamation of 1763 does not revoke previous land grants in the western frontier territories. The opinion stimulates real estate speculators to press for the recognition of their claims.
1768
Virginia’s boundary is moved west by the Treaty of Hard Labor between southern Indian commissioner John Stuart and the Cherokee Indians. This treaty confirms the grants of Cherokee land within North and South Carolina and Virginia to the English crown.
1768
The Indiana Company buys 1,800,000 acres from the Iroquois Indians in territory southeast of the Ohio River. A treaty with the Iroquois grants to the English Crown a large tract of land, including much of western New York state and the area to the west between the Ohio and Tennessee Rivers.
1769
Following the negotiation of treaties with the Indians, the land office at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, is overrun by hordes of persons wanting to purchase real estate in the western territories.
1769
In the California Territory, Franciscan friar Father Junipero Sera founds the San Diego de Alcala mission, the first permanent Spanish settlement on America’s west coast.
1769
The Grand Ohio Company is organized by Englishmen to procure a grant of 20 million acres from the English crown under provisions of theTreaty of Stanwix.
1770
Four hundred families from New England migrate to Natchez, Mississippi.
1770
The Mohawk Trail of New York, also known as the Iroquois Trail, extends from Albany to Lake Erie as a wagon trail.
1771
The Regulators are defeated by Governor Tryon’s forces.
1772
The first stagecoach in service makes the trip between Boston and New York City in just one week.
1774
North Carolina Judge Richard Henderson and some of his friends found the Transylvania Company for the purposes of land speculation in the Kentucky region.
1774
The Illinois and Wabash Land Companies are organized to purchase large tracts of western territory. Pennsylvanian James Harrod establishes Harrodsburg, the first permanent settlement in the Kentucky Territory.
1775
Daniel Boone, employed by the Transylvania Company, blazes a trail to Kentucky and establishes the settlement and fort of Boonesborough on the Kentucky River. Even with improvements in 1781, the road remains a pack-horse trail.
1775
1783
The American Revolution takes place. Some historians call it the First War for Independence from Great Britain. The King’s Highway is a link between the colonies, helping them to coordinate their war efforts; the name is looked upon with disfavor by American patriots, many of whom prefer to use the name Boston Post Road again.
1776
One of every six Americans is a black slave.
1776
On California’s coast, Spanish missionaries establish the mission San Franciso de Asis, a settlement known popularly as Yerba Buena. In 1849, it becomes the city of San Francisco.
1777
In January, settlers of the New Hampshire Grants declare their independence and establish a “republic” with the name of New Connecticut. This is the area which was formerly the part of New Hampshire Colony west of the Connecticut River, now claimed by New York. In July, New Connecticut renames itself Vermont.
1778
Territory won from the British post at Kaskaskia by George Rogers Clark is annexed by Virginia, as the County of Illinois.
1780
Congress issues a resolution encouraging states to cede their western territories to the Union to be settled and admitted to the Union as states in their own right.
1781
Spanish Franciscan Fathers in southern California found a mission village, El Pueblo Nuestra Senora la Reina de los Angeles de Porciuncula—it becomes Los Angeles.
1782
On November 30, American and British representatives sign a preliminary peace treaty. The British recognize American independence, specifying boundaries for the United States, continued American fishing rights off the coast of eastern Canada, validation of debts, the restoration of rights and property to American Loyalists, and withdrawal of British forces from America’s territory.
1783
On April 26, about 7,000 Loyalists sail from New York, heading for Canada.
1783
On September 3, in Paris, the Treaty of Paris is signed by Great Britain and the United States, ending the American Revolutionary War.


NEW WORLD TIMELINE--French--TO REVOLUTION








1524
The Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazano  explored the coast of North America, on behalf of France, from the Carolinas north to Nova Scotia.
1534
The explorer Jacques Cartier established the settlement of Charlesbourg Royal in the colony of 'Canada' along the St. Lawrence River
1535
The settlement of Charlesbourg Royal was abandoned but France gained an important fur trading foothold.


1562
The Huguenot Jean Ribault enters the St. Johns River in Florida claiming the territory for France
1565
The Spanish in Florida opposed the Protestant French presence and attack the military settlement founded by Jean Ribault. 350 Huguenot colonists and Jean Ribault are taken prisoner by the Spanish and questioned whether they were Catholics. All those who were Huguenot Protestants were killed by the Spanish. The infamous event occurred on September 29, 1565 and is referred to as the Florida Massacre.
1600
The first fur trading post is established in North America, at Tadoussac, by Pierre de Chauvin de Tonnetuit
1604
Acadia was established as a French colony in north-eastern North America
1608
Explorer Samuel Champlain explored the area of the Great Lakes and founds Quebec
1625
Jesuit and Recollet (Franciscan) missionaries start to establish Catholic missions in the colonies of New France and were some of the first immigrants.
1627
The Company of New France was given the complete monopoly of the fur trade. In return the Company agreed to take 200 - 300 settlers a year to colonies.
poverty
1662
The colony at Plaisance in the Newfoundland area was established by France
1663
The huge French Hudson Bay colony was established by France

1670
New France made into a royal colony, heralding the first major Wave of Colonists.

1670
Alexandre de Prouville had forced peace with the Native American Indians to pathe the way for more immigrants and French Indentured Servants, called Engagés, took the opportunity to immigrate to America. More than 3000 colonists made their way to the New World in the 1670's.

1673
Louis Joliet and Jacques Marquette explore the Mississippi River to the mouth of the Arkansas River

1673
The lack of women in the colonies was addressed by King Louis XIV in a emigration system, referred to as the 'King's Daughters', in which girls of marriageable age were given free passage to America to boost the population of the Canada colony.




1682
The massive French colony of Louisiana, stretching for 3,000 miles from the mouth of the Mississippi River up to Canada was established by France.

1682
Robert Cavalier Sieur de la Salle explores the
Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico

1688
The French and Indian Wars (1688-1763) began between Britain and France for the possession of North America, involving their various American Indian allies. The French and Indian Wars were to last for 75 years.




1699
Pierre LeMoyne d'Iberville explores the Gulf Coast and discovers Biloxi, Mississippi




1717
The Company of the West, run by John Law a favorite of the monarchy, brings 7000 Europeans and 3000 slaves to the Louisiana Colony.

1718
The city of New Orleans was founded and the Creole society emerged.

1721
The "Mississippi Bubble" burst and control of migration to the Louisiana Colony was taken from John Law and returned to the French monarchy.


1724--"Code Noir"--Jews booted from Louisiana, Catholics only control the slaves, runaway slaves after 30 days will have ears cut off, rights granted for manumitted slaves.






1755
The Expulsion of the Arcadians (1755–1764) occurred during the French and Indian War as part of the British campaign against New France. Exiles from Arcadia migrate to the French Louisiana colony
establishing the Cajun culture.

1762
France, realising they had lost the French and Indian Wars made the secret Treaty of Fontainebleau with Spain ceding Louisiana, as well as New Orleans to the Spanish.

1763
The Treaty of Paris ends the French and Indian Wars by which most of the colonies of New France were ceded to Great Britain.





Sunday, October 1, 2017

ANTHROPOLOGY--Etymology and Origin of Term-- VARIOUS SOURCES

Following from the archives--


https://books.google.com/books?id=QP8u1RHKQAUC&pg=PA422&lpg=PA422&dq=marcel+de+serres++anthropology&source=bl&ots=VIy50P6Fay&sig=CfgumbfsH1Iw3aHtJWqGrpXhsuM&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiKs7ef2dDWAhUBWmMKHeAMDyYQ6AEIPDAG#v=onepage&q=marcel%20de%20serres%20%20anthropology&f=false








https://books.google.com/books?id=8HV0AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA148&lpg=PA148&dq=charles+whittlesey++anthropology&source=bl&ots=cnwMS_ThRe&sig=a2iRJJXVJtDYsvY0Ljufe8-dtQE&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwia872MxNDWAhUR42MKHYJMCn0Q6AEILTAD#v=onepage&q=charles%20whittlesey%20%20anthropology&f=false


Origin of Term--p. 146






Theodore-Jules-Ernest Hamy. - Perhaps the oldest professorship of anthropology at any seat of learning is that connected with the Paris
Obgllizod by Gawk)
146
AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST [N. s., 1t, 1909
Museum of Natural History. It was originally a chair of anatomy, but the name was changed in aso to that of the natural history of man, or "anthropology " as it came to be called by Professor Serres who was the incumbent at the time. The latter was succeeded by de Quatrefages, and he in turn by the subject of this sketch, Professor E. 'I'. Hamy, whose death occurred November 18, 1908.
American Anthropologist, Vol. 11 American Anthropological Assn, 1909








Origin of "Sociology": Deductive-Inductive--


https://books.google.com/books?id=hDHuAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA143&lpg=PA143&dq=MARCEL+DE+SERRES++ANTHROPOLOGY&source=bl&ots=EFymYptv_4&sig=HpczXIAzLWTTyQmwcCtV94YiVYI&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjF1qb009DWAhVLwGMKHZR7DpgQ6AEINzAD#v=onepage&q=MARCEL%20DE%20SERRES%20%20ANTHROPOLOGY&f=false



















































Saturday, September 30, 2017

ANTH101--MidTerm#1--JOHN WESLEY POWELL (1834-1902)

eth·nol·o·gy
eTHˈnäləjē/
noun
  1. the study of the characteristics of various peoples and the differences and relationships between them.
Anthropology and the Racial Politics of Culture--
Lee D Baker-- (2010)




John Wesley Powell-- (1834-1902)-- P. 71-72


John Wesley Powell made his mark in Washington as a geologist and surveyor, scientist and adventurer during the 1870's as he emerged as a storied Washington insider (Darnell 1971; Darrah 1951; Stegner 1954; Wor-ster zoos). Although he is viewed as a founder of the conservation move-ment in the West, he was also the first person to institutionalize anthro-pology in the United States by mobilizing a corps of paid professionals at
THE POLITICS OF THE REAL 71
the bureau (Seigel et al. zoo3a; 1-iinsley 1981:151). The BAE was originally authorized by Congress in the spring of 1879 when it consolidated vari-ous geographical surveys into the U.S. Geological Survey.4 Although the bureau was chartered under the auspices of the Smithsonian Institution to extend its mission "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge Powell used the application of knowledge as the justification he gave Congress for the bureau's inception (Smithson 1826:3). In short, ethnology could help to solve the so-called Indian problem. Anthropology and the Racial Politics of Culture-- Lee D Baker.



Powell Strategy--Surveillance, Reconnaissance, Intelligence.--
The long road from Savagery to Civilization as opposed to a rather short road.---


Powell's main message was that he had a new and improved way to measure the progress from savagery to civilization. Powell began by chal-lenging "the most noteworthy attempt hitherto made to distinguish and define culture-stages," which he credited to "Lewis 11. Morgan in his great work entitled 'Ancient Society [1877)'" (1885:171). Powell's basic argument was that "the separation between savagery and barbarism" was greater than Morgan or Tylor had surmised and that people stayed within the stage of savagery longer but then sped through the other stages faster with the help of racial and cultural mixing, or what he termed "a return to homogeneity" (1885:194). As Powell optimistically reasoned, "Civiliza-tion overwhelms Savagery, not so much by spilling blood as by mixing blood, but whether spilled or mixed, a greater homogeneity is secured" Anthropology and the Racial Politics of Culture—Lee D Baker --2010

Bureau of American Ethnology - Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bureau_of_American_Ethnology

The Bureau of American Ethnology was established in 1879 by an act of Congress for the ... In 1965, the BAE merged with the Smithsonian's Department of Anthropology to form the Smithsonian Office of Anthropology within the United States ...




ANTHROPOLOGY--The 4 groups--
Archaeology, Biological, Social-Cultural, Linguistic.









HIST 101--Timeline--COLONIAL WARS--AMERICA

  1637The Pequot War - Native Indians of Connecticut included the Narragansetts, Mohegans, Wampanoags, Nipmucks, Pocumtucks, Abenakis and Pequots. The Pequots were defeated by the colonists, who were led by John Underhill and John Mason, and the Narragansetts and Mohegans who were their allies 
     
  16401640 - 1701 - The Beaver Wars, also known as the Iroquois Wars or the French and Iroquois Wars 
     
  16551655 - The Peach Tree War, also known as the Peach War, was a large scale attack by the Susquehannock Nation and allied Native Americans on several New Netherland settlements centered on New Amsterdam 
     
  16751675 - 1677 King Philip's War so named after Metacomet of the Wampanoag tribe, who was called Philip by the English. The war was bloody and bitterly fought by the colonists against the Wampanoags, Narragansetts, Nipmucks, Pocumtucks, and Abenakis. During King Philip's War, up to one third of America's white population was wiped out. This war proved to be the final struggle by the Native Americans of Connecticut. 
     
  17111711-1713: The Tuscarora War between the Tuscarora Native Americans and European settlers. The Tuscarora are defeated 
     
  1715The Yamasee War - An Indian confederation led by the Yamasee came close to exterminating the white settlements in their area 
     
  1722Iroquois surrender claims to land south of the Ohio River in addition to counties in the eastern panhandle 
     
  17561756 - 1763: The Seven Years War (French and Indian War) due to disputes over land is won by Great Britain. France gives England all French territory east of the Mississippi River, except New Orleans. The Spanish give up east and west Florida to the English in return for Cuba. 
     
  1763February 10: Treaty of Paris ends French and Indian War (1754-1763). Canada east of the Mississippi River added to the British empire. 
     
  1764Pontiac's Rebellion. The British treated the former Indian allies of the French like conquered peoples, which prompted the Ottawa Chief Pontiac (1720-1769) to lead a rebellion of a number of tribes against the British

Friday, September 29, 2017

ANTH 101--MidTerm#1--EXAM REVIEW NOTES, REFS--

You should know the following:


The subfields of anthropology and their topics of study
Archaeology. Archaeology examines peoples and cultures of the past.
Biological Anthropology. Biological anthropology specializes in evolution, genetics, and health. Cultural Anthropology. Cultural anthropology studies human societies and elements of cultural life. Linguistic Anthropology.


Culture concept, characteristics of culture, and its relation to anthropology
Research methods in cultural anthropology --
Ethnography is the descriptive study of one culture, subculture, or micro-culture based on fieldwork.


Fieldwork in anthropology--
the gathering of anthropological or sociological data through the interviewing and observation of subjects in the field.


Different theoretical/explanatory approaches in cultural anthropology
Deduction--
Induction--


Know the name of the theory, the anthropologists associated with it , and one or two points about it
evolutionism-- Darwinian examination and application to anthropology research; incorporates natural selection and genetics.
diffusionism--conceptualized by Leo Frobenius in his 1897/98 publication Der westafrikanische Kulturkreis, is the spread of cultural items—such as ideas, styles, religions, technologies, languages etc.—between individuals, whether within a single culture or from ...
historical particularism-- Boas, each culture has a unique history as opposed to a set pattern, ref the "Savage-Barbarian-Civilized" paradigm
functionalism--developed by Bronislaw Malinowski (1884-1942) ,  similar to Radcliffe-Brown's structural functionalism, in that it is holistic and posits that all cultural "traits" are functionally interrelated and form an integrated social whole.
structuralism--Claude Lévi-Strauss' (1908-2009) idea that immutable deep structures exist in all cultures, and consequently, that all cultural practices have homologous counterparts in other cultures, essentially that all cultures are equitable.
neo-evolutionism--explain the evolution of societies by drawing on Charles Darwin's (1809-1882) theory of evolution and discarding some dogmas of the previous social evolutionism. ... Its theories are based on empirical evidence from fields such as archaeology, paleontology, and historiography.
cultural ecology--human adaptations to social and physical environments. Human adaptation refers to both biological and cultural processes that enable a population to survive and reproduce within a given or changing environment. Julian Steward (1902-1972)
cultural materialism--first introduced by Marvin Harris (1927-2001) in his 1968 book The Rise of Anthropological Theory, as a theoretical paradigm and research strategy. It is said to be the most enduring achievement of that work.
 postmodernist --an emphasis on including the opinions and perspectives of the people being studied, cultural relativism as a method of inquiry. Melford Spiro (1914-2014)


Characteristics of language; how language is used in culture --
Linguistic anthropology is the interdisciplinary study of how language influences social life. It is a branch of anthropology that originated from the endeavor to document endangered languages, and has grown over the past century to encompass most aspects of language structure and use.
Cultural relativism and ethnocentrism—why are they important concepts in anthropology?
--asserts that since each culture has its own values and practices, anthropologists should not make value judgments about cultural differences.


How anthropologists understand race and racism--

ANTH 101--MidTerm #1--EXAM NOTES, RFERENCES--

Anthropology--the study of human societies and cultures and their development.


Interpretive Anthropology--is the study of cultural symbols and how those symbols can be used to better understanding a particular society.


Applied Anthropology--also known as “practicing anthropology,” is defined as the practical application of anthropological method and theory to the needs of society. It is, quite simply, anthropology put to good use.


Functionalism--the theory that all aspects of a society serve a function and are necessary for the survival of that society.  Functionalism is similar to Radcliffe-Brown's structural functionalism, in that it is holistic and posits that all cultural "traits" are functionally interrelated and form an integrated social whole.


Biological Determinism--refers to the idea that all human behavior is innate, determined by genes, brain size, or other biological attributes. This theory stands in contrast to the notion that human behavior is determined by culture or other social forces.


Sociolinguistics--the study of language in relation to social factors, including differences of regional, class, and occupational dialect, gender differences, and bilingualism.


Historical Particularism--Closely associated with Franz Boas and the Boasian approach to anthropology, historical particularism rejected the cultural evolutionary model that had dominated anthropology until Boas. It argued that each society is a collective representation of its unique historical past.


Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis--a hypothesis, first advanced by Edward Sapir in 1929 and subsequently developed by Benjamin Whorf, that the structure of a language determines a native speaker's perception and categorization of experience.


Physical/Biological Anthropology--also known as physical anthropology, is a scientific discipline concerned with the biological and behavioral aspects of human beings, their related non-human primates and their extinct hominin ancestors.


Non-verbal Communication--our facial expressions, gestures, eye contact, posture, and tone of voice—that speak the loudest.


Methodology--a system of methods used in a particular area of study or activity


Participant-Observation--the observer participates in ongoing activities and records observations.
Culture


Culture and Personality/Configurationalism--Any theory that stresses the whole rather than the parts, especially gestalt theory . In anthropology, associated with the ideas of Ruth Benedict


Cultural Anthropology--the branch of anthropology concerned with the study of human societies and cultures and their development.


Cultural Materialism--To Harris social change is dependent of three factors: a society's infrastructure, structure, and superstructure. Ref to Marx, Engels, Hegel, Comte, Malthus.
the principal mechanisms by which a society exploits its environment are contained in a society's infrastructure—the mode of production (technology and work patterns) and population (such as population characteristics, fertility and mortality rates). Since such practices are essential for the continuation of life itself, widespread social structures and cultural values and beliefs must be consistent with these practices.


Cultural Relativism--argued against the evolutionary scale leading from savagery to Culture, laid out by his 19th-century predecessors. civilization is not something absolute, but ... is relative, and ... our ideas and conceptions are true only so far as our civilization goes."[


Globalization--the process by which businesses or other organizations develop international influence or start operating on an international scale.


Unilineal Cultural Evolution--cultural evolution: a theory of unilineal evolution with three basic phases of development that all human societies went through—Hunter-gatherer (the "savage" stage),
agriculture and metal-work (the stage of "barbarism"), and the highest stage beginning with writing (the stage of "civilization"). Morgan postulated that there were also stages in the development of family structures—from promiscuity and incestuous relationships through group marriage, and polygamy to the most advanced stage of monogamous marriage. Cultural evolution” is the idea that human cultural change––that is, changes in socially transmitted beliefs, knowledge, customs, skills, attitudes, languages, and so on––can be described as a Darwinian evolutionary process that is similar in key respects (but not identical) to biological/genetic evolution.


Ethnocentrism-- the belief in the inherent superiority of one's own ethnic group or culture. 2. a tendency to view alien groups or cultures from the perspective of one's own. belief in the intrinsic superiority of the nation, culture, or group to which one belongs, often accompanied by feelings of dislike for other groups


Ethnography--the scientific description of the customs of individual peoples and cultures.


Ethnographic  Research--is the study of people in their own environment through the use of methods such as participant observation and face-to-face interviewing.


Archaeology--the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, architecture, biofacts or ecofacts, and cultural landscapes.


Lewis Henry Morgan (1818-1881)--cultural evolution: a theory of unilineal evolution with three basic phases of development that all human societies went through—Hunter-gatherer (the "savage" stage), agriculture and metal-work (the stage of "barbarism"), and the highest stage beginning with writing (the stage of "civilization"). Morgan postulated that there were also stages in the development of family structures—from promiscuity and incestuous relationships through group marriage, and polygamy to the most advanced stage of monogamous marriage.


Franz Boas  (1858-1942)--greatly influenced American anthropology, particularly in his development of the theoretical framework known as cultural relativism, which argued against the evolutionary scale leading from savagery to Culture, laid out by his 19th-century predecessors. Closely associated with Franz Boas and the Boasian approach to anthropology, historical particularism rejected the cultural evolutionary model that had dominated anthropology until Boas. It argued that each society is a collective representation of its unique historical past. participated in a geographical expedition to northern Canada, where he became fascinated with the culture and language of the Baffin Island Inuit.




Tylor-Morgan Theory--"Savagery-Barbarism-Civilization"  (1832-1917)--



Ruth Benedict  (1887-1948)--Any theory that stresses the whole rather than the parts, especially gestalt theory . In anthropology, associated with the ideas of Ruth benedict


Bronislaw Malinowski  (1884-1942)--Functionalism is similar to Radcliffe-Brown's structural functionalism, in that it is holistic and posits that all cultural "traits" are functionally interrelated and form an integrated social whole.


Clifford Geertz (1926 – 2006)--Interpretive-Symbolic  Anthropology


Marvin Harris  (1927-2001)--Cultural Materialism
Race
Racism, Individual and Institutional

Thursday, September 28, 2017

RACE RESEARCH--Timeline--NON-BIOLOGICAL

Timeline of Scientific Racism


This timeline gives an overview of scientific racism throughout the world, placing the Eugenics Record Office within a broader historical framework extending from Enlightenment-Era Europe to present-day social thought.


1759: Botanist Carl Linnaeus publishes the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, which is the first to fully describe the four races of man.
1770: Dutch naturalist Petrus Camper begins developing his “facial angle” formula, basing his ideal angle on Grecian statues.
1795: Anthropologist Johann Friedrich Blumenbach names the five races of man.
Early 1800s: Franz Joseph Gall develops “cranioscopy,” which is later renamed phrenology by his disciple Johann Spurzheim.
1810: John Caspar Lavater publishes the foundational text Essays on Physiognomy.
1828: George Combe publishes The Constitution of Man Considered in Relation to External Objects, linking phrenology and racial comparison.
1830s: Orson Fowler opens his Phrenological Cabinet in the heart of downtown Manhattan.
1832: Johann Gaspar Spurzheim invigorates the American phrenology movement with his series of lectures in Boston.
1839: Samuel George Morton introduces his theory of craniometry in Crania Americana.
1844: Scottish publisher Robert Chambers releases his Vestiges of the Natural History of Mankind, the most popular work of natural history prior to Darwin’s Origin of Species. Chambers argues that each race represents a different stage of human evolution with whites being the most evolved.
1852: American physician James W. Redfield writes Comparative Physiognomy, which equates each type of people with a specific animal.
1853: French thinker Arthur Comte Gobineau publishes An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Race, arguing for the primacy of the Aryan race.
1859: Charles Darwin release the first edition of On the Origin of Species.
1864: Herbert Spencer coins the phrase “survival of the fittest” in developing his theories of social Darwinism.
1865: French anthropologist Paul Broca develops his “table chromatique” for classifying skin color.
1866: Physician John Downs defines “Mongolian idiocy” which he argues is a regression to the “Oriental stage” of human development.
1869: Francis Galton publishes Hereditary Genius, outlining his theories or human breeding.
1876: Italian psychiatrist Cesare Lombroso releases Criminal Man, which outlines his theory of criminal anthropology.
1877: Richard Dugdale publishes The Jukes, which links crime and heredity.
1882: The Chinese Exclusion Act is passed, excluding Chinese laborers from immigration for ten years.
1883: Galton coins the term eugenics.
1886: Chief of the New York City Detective Bureau Thomas F. Byrnes publishes Professional Criminals of America in which he collects the mug shots of notable criminals.
1892: The Chinese Exclusion Act is renewed for ten more years under the Geary Act.
1893: The World’s Columbian Exposition opens in Chicago with country pavilions organized according to scientific theories of race.
1889: Andrew Carnegie pens “The Gospel of Wealth,” justifying the extreme wealth of the robber barrons.
1900: Gregor Mendel’s theories of inheritance are “rediscovered.”
1902: The Chinese Exclusion Act is made permanent.
1904: Curator of physical anthropology at the Smithsonian Institute Ales Hrdlicka publishes Broca’s “table chromatique” in the U.S.
1905: The German Society for Racial Hygiene is founded.
1905: Alfred Binet invents the IQ test for measuring intelligence.
1907: The Eugenics Education Society is founded in Britain.
1907: The first American compulsory sterilization law goes into effect in 1907 in Indiana with dozens of states following suit.
1910: Zoologist Charles Davenport founds the Eugenics Record Office at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory with a grant from Mrs. E.H. Harriman.
1911: The Joint-Congressional Dillingham Commission recommends reading and writing tests to slow “undesirable” immigration.
1911: Franz Boas publishes The Mind of Primitive Man arguing for the role of environmental factors in the apparent differences between races.
1912: The First International Conference of Eugenics is held in London, presided over by Charles Darwin’s son Leonard.
1913: Eugenicist Henry Goddard introduces the IQ test at Ellis Island.
1916: Madison Grant publishes The Passing of the Great Race, splitting Europe into three racial groups: Nordics, Alpines, and Mediterraneans.
1917: The Immigration Act of 1917 includes the Asiatic Barred Zone, which excludes nearly all immigrants from Asia.
1920: Lothrop Stoddard writes The Rising Tide of Color Against White World-Supremacy.
1921: The Emergency Quota Act is signed into law, heavily restricting immigration from Eastern & Southern Europe.
1921: The Second International Congress of Eugenics is held at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City.
1923: Carl Bringham publishes A Study of American Intelligence, which uses the IQ testing done by Robert Yerkes to support differences in intelligence between races.
1924: The Immigration Act of 1924 becomes law imposing a quota system that favored Northern & Western Europe and excluding immigration from all of Asia.
1924: U.S. Congressman from New York Emanuel Celler gives his first major speech on the House floor against the Immigration Act of 1924.
1927: The Supreme Court upholds compulsory sterilization in Buck v. Bell.
1932: The Third International Eugenics Conference is held at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City. ERO Director Charles B. Davenport presides.
1932: The Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences is released with many of the anthropology articles written by Boasians, not Grantians.
1933: The Third Reich enacts the first German compulsory sterilization law.
1935: The Carnegie Institution of Washington orders an external scientific review of the ERO, and finds its records “unsatisfactory for the scientific study of human genetics.”
1937: Madison Grant dies.
1937: The Pioneer Fund is founded by Wickliffe Draper to support racial research. ERO superintendent Harry Laughlin serves as its first president.
1939: The Eugenics Record Office shuts down.
1943: Chinese Exclusion is repealed and a quota is given of 105 immigrants per year.
1952: The McCarran-Walter bill is passed, revising but not eliminating the quota system of immigration.
1965: The Hart-Celler Act repeals the immigration quota system and establishes a new system based on skills and family relation.
1994: Richard J. Hernstein and Charles Murray release The Bell Curve which argues for racial difference in IQ.
1998: The American Anthropological Association issues a statement on race, concluding that contemporary science makes clear that human populations are not “unambiguous, clearly demarcated, biologically distinct groups.”
2003: North Carolina finally repeals its compulsory sterilization law.
2014: New York Times journalist Nicholas Wade argues for race-based science in A Troublesome Inheritance.

Sunday, September 24, 2017

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY-- Deductive and Inductive Methods-- ENEMIES ALL AROUND AND TAXES

Reality as Seen in the Movies--

   Following excerpts from various sources attempt to explain the difference between the the principal scientific methods for developing theories: Deductive and Inductive--

http://www.actforlibraries.org/explaining-the-inductive-approach-cultural-anthropology/

   This question was one that Franz Boas raised in the early twentieth century, and Boas was the one who proposed the inductive approach to ethnography as one of the methods to correct the problem. Back then, ethnographic fieldwork was approached with a theory in place which the ethnographer wished to test, much the same way that scientists perform experiments to support or disprove a hypothesis.
   According to Boas, however, starting fieldwork with a hypothesis in mind (known as a deductive approach) would narrow the researcher’s focus and emphasis their own cultural biases enough that important information would be glossed over or overlooked. An inductive approach to ethnographies, however, formulates theories from the ‘bottom-up’ rather than from the ‘top-down’. This means that the researcher starts by observing the community and for repeated patterns of behaviour. If certain themes continue to crop up, the researcher can develop a tentative hypothesis that can be verified and turned into a theory once more corroborating data is gathered from other communities within the same society.


   BLOG NOTES--There are so many different aspects and approaches to the exact process of understanding where to look and what to see, either doing an archaeological dig in the dusty library files, or out on some remote island, it is just not completely possible to decide which one is not just the best, but also the truth.

   There appears to be a genuine lack of, or disregard for, the truth in all of the language, hypotheses and myriads of research files available. Who is to say what is the answer to understanding a culture. How do we know that when moving in with the natives, they are hip to the game and will tell you anything just to get something out of you?

   As in the nearly every  encounter of  Dravot and Carnehan, in the Kipling film classic "The Man Who Would be King" (1975) , they found out that everyone had enemies all around them; even though that may have been furthest from the truth if the two British adventurers hadn't travelled into the high mountains above Afghanistan.


   By the same token, in the film "Shout at the Devil" (1976), every time  Sebastian Oldsmith (Roger Moore) went into a village to collect taxes, the villagers stashed all their worldly goods and the women sat out front of the huts in ragged clothes with crying babies on their laps.


   One might, from the examples in the two films above, draw the conclusion, either by deduction or induction, that there is no genuine approach to discovering the core values of a culture, in spite of library research or fieldwork. The natives might just be putting us on, seeing enemies behind every bush and feigning poverty at the sight of the taxman.

   There is one other  variable to consider. Many of these regions under study have barely come out of the historic barbaric stage, probably near the top of that category; only to find themselves a new "nation" by global standards. Somalia is a classic example. We hurry to nationalize a region full of diverse tribes and villages, with no more real common cultural similarities than the Native Americans had when the colonists arrived in the New World in the 16th and 17th centuries. We take it for granted that all of the natives are the same, treat them the same and classify them as such. So when the warlords of Mogadishu revolt and we find ourselves in a "Black Hawk Down" environment, we blame them for not wanting to be a part of the emerging global community; even though it would be better if they weren't.

   No deductive or inductive approach will satisfy this dilemma, there is no sanitized classification in anthropology that will satisfy the problem of how to accept barely civilized communities into the global arena.

   They have enemies all around them and refuse to pay taxes.

JC LANGELLE (c) 2017--Eyeless On Campus Blog--