Friday, December 14, 2018

#OBAMACARE--Henry Thoreau Examines the Affordable Care Act.--THE MANDATE & THE TAX


 Final Exam Response (Prompt 001)-- by James C. L'Angelle

      In FDR’s State of the Union delivered in 1944 during World War 2, he promised a second “Bill of Rights” which included the following provision:
     “The right to adequate medical care and the opportunity to achieve and enjoy good health”
The question was, as it is today, at what cost?  What seemed like a lofty proposal in the middle of a major war in the last century had to wait until the first decade in the new millennium for a solution. But it would come at a cost and that cost would be a restriction on freedom itself, and came to be known as “Obamacare.”

     The law required all citizens to declare a health care provider under a tax penalty if the individual didn’t meet the deadline and the rules. However, there were so many deferrals, exemptions, credits and restrictions applied to the penalty that it came under the scrutiny of the judicial branch of government. Were it up to Henry David Thoreau, he would toss the tax out with the government. In Civil Disobedience, 1848, Thoreau argued friction on machinery and the oil to reduce friction was taxation. But if the machine was no good, it was time to dispose of it. Apparently, the Obama Affordable Care Act (ACA) has reached the point of the machine no longer able, after only a few years, to function, as what Thoreau would refer to “oppression and robbery.”
     Further, with Thoreau’s analogy of the parts of the machinery as compared to the whole, various components of the ACA came into focus when one did not run properly and the effect it had initially on the other and finally on the entire machine. Oiling did not help as it had already become obsolete due to the friction created by interaction of its parts. Those parts included the “Individual Mandate” and “Shared Responsibility Payment.” 
     When tax cuts were introduced in 2017 and the second of the two was reduced to zero, a major component of the machine was removed. Many times when a part no longer operates in a machine, certain controls can offset functionality, not so in the case of the payment. Because the Mandate could no longer be enforced by a triggered tax, and due to the fact it was an integral part of the machine, a “linchpin,” then the machine, the ACA, became obsolete.
     Consider that from the outset, disregarding the legalese in the recent Texas court ruling, that a form of coercion was the underlying structure of the ACA from the outset, bolstered by a tax that couldn’t be conceivably enforced due to , as many have, a number of exemptions and deferrals. Add to it political agendas based on tax reduction in order to maintain control of the government, then written into a reform such as the zero shared payment could only spell doom for the entire act. The provisions were so tightly connected, as was the intent of Congress when designing the machine, that, ultimately, it failed altogether.
“In every threat and every compliment there is a blunder.” Thoreau

Supporting Documents:
State of the Union, FDR, 1944:
Civil Disobedience, Henry David Thoreau, 1847, Five Hundred Years, Casper, Davies & deJong, Pearson Solutions, 2016’
Texas v USA , CA et al; US District Court, Fort Worth;

Tuesday, December 11, 2018

ESSAY: Two Men from the Confederacy and Union Bullion--CH203.1002//UNIV NEVADA, RENO FALL 2018

CH203.1002//Dr. S Pasqualina//University of Nevada, Reno Fall 2018
James L’Angelle 11 Dec 18

Two Men from the Confederacy and Union Bullion

    Valentine Houseworth, also known by the abbreviation “V.A. Houseworth,” was a name little known in circles surrounding the history of the gold rush in Virginia City, Nevada antebellum, but the name does appear infrequently in various documents.  Charles Howard Shinn references V.A. Houseworth’s name in his work titled The Story of the Mine (1):
    “The miners had long before provided, after a fashion, for a recorder of claims, and had elected an honest but illiterate blacksmith of Gold Hill, V.A. Houseworth by name, whose book of records and memoranda is now one of the official treasures of Storey County. It was Houseworth's guileless habit to keep pen, ink, and the old blank book on a shelf behind the bar of an adjacent saloon.”
    On page 123 of “The Story,” Shinn again alludes to the illiterate blacksmith and his tendency to go to the saloon with the miners, leaving his claim book on a shelf where anyone could modify it:
    “Never since the world began were conflicting interests, honest and dishonest, more wildly entangled than in that early Nevada.”
    First mention of the “Kentuck” mine is on page 37 of Shinn’s account of the Virginia City mines. The story of the Kentuck mine becomes central in the rise of John Mackay of the Comstock lode and it is here that the name of Houseworth again appears. In the Reports of Cases Decided in the (9th) Circuit and District Courts, filed by Counselor L.S.B. Sawyer, the following reference is made to the Comstock:
    “On June 10, 1859, Penrod & Co., since called Comstock & Co., of whom Comstock was one, while working on a claim made by them, discovered the Comstock lode. Before that time a number of claims had been taken up in the vicinity as square locations.”
    The very next day, a set of laws governing the Gold Hill claims was set and as a result, Houseman’s system became obsolete. He did have a hand in the enactment of the laws, however:
    "Art. 4. The duty of the recorder shall be to keep in a well-bound book, a record of all mining claims that may be presented for record, with the names of the parties locating or purchasing;”
    Houseworth’s name appears at the bottom of the laws as  both “Recorder” and “Secretary.”
The laws were published in the Territorial Enterprise.

    Jonas M. Walker is the next name that plays an integral part in the development of the Comstock lode.  According to Gregory Crouch’s book, The Bonanza King, (3)  The “Kentuck” mine was originally a claim of John Osborne, who spent most of his time celebrating and in the process, neglecting development of the mine. Houseworth also had a claim in the vicinity but it eventually passed into the hands of Osborne and Houseworth returned to his home in Virginia around the time the Civil War broke out. Walker, who had also migrated out west during the gold rush of ‘49, became indirectly involved in the Kentuck mine, The profligate Osborne died and left no direct ownership to the Kentuck about the time Walker and a rather newcomer on the scene, John Mackay, formed a partnership. It was in 1865, just a few months after Lee surrendered in Appomattox, that Walker tracked down Houseworth in Orange Court House, Virginia and secured a quitclaim for $500, transferring  ownership of the Kentuck to Walker and Mackay. In this first endeavour, the partners managed to secure finance, borrow money and create stock for the mine.
    As time went on, Walker eventually sold out to bankers who bought into the claim, including the Comstock, and eventually died penniless. But there are a couple of missing details to this rather convoluted and fascinating story. The Bloomington Daily Pantagraph reported in 1879, that while Mackay was digging and failing, he eventually “became associated with J.M. Walker, a brother of Governor Walker of Virginia.” (4) Another curious turn in the obscure pre-Virginia City history of Walker can be found in The Plumas Argus in 1859 regarding an insolvency case against “Jonas M. Walker” in Quincy. (5)
Apparently Walker had migrated west, gone broke, moved to Virginia City, taken on a job at the Kentuck, managed to fanagle the original Houseworth quitclaim that gave he and Mackay a grubstake to develop the Comstock, made a fortune, sold out, failed at a railroad business enterprise with his brother back east, and died a pauper in San Francisco.
    The ironic fact in the story is that two men from the Confederate States of America, from Virginia; Valentine A. Houseworth and Jonas M. Walker, were instrumental at a grass roots level in the development of the mines in Nevada that helped finance a Union victory against the South in the Civil War.

Supporting Documents:

(1) The Story of the Mine, Charles Howard Shinn, D. Appleton & Co., New York 1896, pages 71 & 123.
(2) Reports of Cases Decided in the (9th) Circuit and District Courts, Counselor L.S.B. Sawyer, A.L. Bancroft & Co., SF, 1878, pages 394-97
(3) The Bonanza King, Gregory Couch, Simon & Schuster, 2018,
(4) The Bloomington Pantagraph, Nov 25, 1879, Front Page.
(5) The Plumas Argus, 18 Aug 1859, Page 3.

Wednesday, November 28, 2018

CH203.1002---Essay #002, Grading Rubric---UNIVERSITY OF NEVADA, RENO FALL 2018


ESSAY #2: CH203.1002-ESSAY #002--African-American Struggle i…

ABSTRACT: Comparison of two opposing views on the future of the emancipated African-American; the first, Booker T. Washington; the second, W.E.B. DuBois. The essay was graded by TA J Williams; the final score, 9 out of 10. The breakdown of the rubric is below:

1. 2.82
2. 1.88
3. 1.94
4. 1.58
5. 0.80

1.) Thesis  3 points
Excellent (A range: 2.7 – 3 points)
States a clear, persuasive, and complex argument that responds to one of the essay prompts. The thesis is an argumentative interpretation based on the texts being analyzed, meaning it goes beyond a mere observation about the texts. Either in the thesis statement itself or elsewhere in the essay, the stakes of the thesis—why the argument matters, or what we learn from it—are made clear

2.) Concrete Evidence / Support  2 points
Excellent (A range: 1.8 – 2 points)
Includes multiple pieces of relevant concrete evidence from the texts being analyzed (for a written text, this means quotations from the text; for an image, concrete descriptions of parts of the image). The evidence successfully supports the thesis. The evidence is properly cited with parenthetical citations that follow MLA guidelines.

3.) Analysis / Interpretation of Evidence  2 points
Excellent (A range: 1.8 – 2 points)
The textual evidence is thoroughly analyzed. The analysis of the evidence is nuanced, persuasive, and thoroughly supports the thesis. The analysis includes minimal summary, instead focusing on interpretations of the text.

4.) Organization  2 points
Satisfactory (C range: 1.4 – 1.6 points)
Relatively clearly organized, with paragraph divisions and mostly clear topic sentences.

5.) Mechanics & Usage  1 point
Good (B range: 0.8 – 0.9 points)
Few to no grammatical and syntactical errors. Perfectly executed parenthetical citations and Works Cited page, per MLA citation guidelines

Saturday, November 24, 2018

JOHN ALLEN CHAU CASE--Missionary Denial, Conspiracy, Accomplices, Police Forensics--REPORTS FROM LOCAL CHURCHES & AUTHORITIES


(The Laboratory)- Details in the case of the American killed by bow and arrow while he was illegally visiting a dangerous island in the Bay of Bengal are now coming to light through a variey of sources. First and foremost is denial that the subject was a "missionary," as reported by local sources, The first denial of missionary status was  a statement by Dependra Pathak, director general of police of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands,

     "People thought he was a missionary because he had mentioned his position on God and that he was a believer on social media or somewhere online. But in a strict sense he was not a missionary. He was an adventurer. His intention was to meet the aborigines," (1)

The local Christian community also denied any knowledge of the victim's status,
     "Bishop Aleixo das Neves Dias of Port Blair, which covers the area, told that the diocese did not have any accurate information about the victim but confirmed that he was not associated with the Catholic mission in the area... Father Dharampal Tirkey, financial adviser of the diocese, told that attributing conversion as Chau's motive 'is part of a malicious attempt to link the unfortunate incident with Christian missionary work.' " (1)

 The police have arrested the conspirators who allowed the victim access to the restricted area and are charged as accomplices to the homicide; they attempted to hide the death from authorities, as reported in the Phoenix Post India,
     "Subsequently, they returned to Port Blair and narrated the incident to Alexander and handed him the 13 pages of the journal written by John Allen Chau. Alexander in turn informed Bobby Parks, a friend of John Allen Chau, in USA, who in turn informed John Allen Chau’s mother. They didn’t inform the Police or any government authority in this regard... All seven of the aforementioned persons were, therefore, booked and arrested in a separate case for violating the provisions of PAT Regulation and causing death of John Allen Chau."  (2)

     The local newspaper, Andaman Sheeka, provides some forensics of the case,
     "The American tourist John Allen Chau, was reportedly seen killed on 17/11/18 in North Sentinel Islands by a group of five fishermen...As the case pertains to the ultra-sensitive tribal group-Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group(PVTG), police is also taking help of Anthropologists, Academics, Forest department experts etc to guide & assist the police during the investigation of this case,  ..all accused people collaborated with John Chau for this visit to North Sentinel Island." (3)

The Sheeka also reveals where the mission commenced,
     "John Allen Chau reportedly hired fishing dinghy from Chidiyatapu area and with the help of some fishermen he reached closed to the Island on 16 November 2018, from where he travelled in his own canoe." (4)

The Times of India reports that a US based fundamentalist group has raised a protest regarding the unfortunate incident,
     "...the organisation International Christian Concern has expressed concerned and sought action on the matter ." (5)

The International Christian Concern (ICC) group labels the Sentinelese a "hostile tribe,"
     "Sources claim that Chau was killed by hostile members of the Sentinelese tribe after arriving on North Sentinel Island. " (6)
     Apparently the ICC has little understanding of the Sentinelese beliefs in magic and religion as outlined in a previous Eyeless on Campus post, #SENTINELESE NEWS-- The John Allen Chau Affair---NOTES FROM ANTHROPOLOGIST RADCLIFFE-BROWN  (7) The reaction to the intruder may very well have nothing at all to do with being "hostile" and is an ignorant, ethnocentric Christian bias from an organization that knows little of the culture of the Andaman island tribe.

Case Summary: Failure to follow procedure, by not registering his trip, in collusion with some local fishermen whose only interest was self-interest in the form of a bribe, and with the help of conspirator known only as "Alexander," the thrillseeker, under the guise of a Christian missionary, was executed by tribesmen, out to protect their culture.

Next: The Christian community take on the execution.

Supporting Documents

JOHN ALLEN CHAU--Brainwashed by Christian Fundamentalist Fanatics-- THE SUICIDE MISSION(ARY)


(The Pub@Northumberland.)  More details are beginning to surface on the "training" the victim went through that sent him into a barrage of arrows on a remote island in the Bay of Bengal.

ALL NATIONS MISSIONARY, located in Kansas City, MO: Domain information for the website, "" can be found at whois, with the following information.

Registrant Name: Peifeng Ho
Registrant Organization: All Nations Family
Registrant Street: P.O. Box 55
Registrant Street:
Registrant Street:
Registrant City: Grandview
Registrant State/Province: Missouri
Registrant Postal Code: 64030

CBS fills in some more blanks about how the kid wound up there in the first place,

"Chau went to 'share the love of Jesus,' said Mary Ho, international executive leader of All Nations. All Nations, a Kansas City, Missouri-based organization, helped train Chau, discussed the risks with him and sent him on the mission, to support him in his life's calling, she added.

'He wanted to have a long-term relationship, and if possible, to be accepted by them and live amongst them, she said " (2)

Turned out it wasn't his "life's calling" at all, but the grave and these fundamentalist fanatics are responsible for the death.

The website itself attributes the founding to Floyd and Sally McClung, and here's Floyd's credentials,
"He is the author of sixteen books, including the best-selling books, The Father Heart of God and Living on the Devil’s Doorstep. " (3) 

     Below we see Sally and Floyd as sympathetic hippie Jesus freaks listening to two lost youth that they took in at their hostel in a cheap Kabul hotel in 1971. The photo tells it all; the understanding , concerned parental expressions, the bare feet, the crash pad atmosphere. (4)

     Below, Floyd is hyped in 1994 Arizona Republic ad with his smiling, I'm going to stick it you, face and "well-loved minister of God's love. " (5)

  The McClungs are masters at brainwashing kids who need a goal in life and sending them off to their deaths at the hands of bow and arrow wielding heathens in remote corners of the globe.
 All Nations is nothing more than a Sun Moon operation without the converts selling incense in the street. Their students, na├»ve and young out to make the world a better place by bringing Jesus into everyone's lives, are sent into harm's way by zealots with no consideration at all for their welfare.
     Western and ignorant, loaded with ethnocentric righteousness, the fanatics place the blame on the natives, with little understanding of their culture, magic, beliefs and superstitions. John Allen Chau didn't have a prayer.
Supporting Evidence:
(4)  San Rafael Daily Independent Journal, 30 Oct 1971, Page 21.
(5) Arizona Republic, 03 Jan 1994, Page E3-57

Thursday, November 22, 2018



(Davidson Laboratory)--Following one of the earliest to write extensively about the archipelago, pre Radcliffe-Brown.

     Born in Surrey, Maurice Vidal Portman was just nineteen—two years younger than the British settlement itself—when, in 1879, he was given the impressive-sounding position of Officer in Charge of the Andamanese. (1)

Translated from Gizmodo article (see ref)--

     "What is surprising is that Portman got to put foot on the island not one if not twice. Time after the first attempt, and from the vicinity of the Andaman Islands, Portman and his team heard several cannon coming from the vicinity of North Sentinel, a signal they interpreted as coming from a struggling ship. After arriving again at North Sentinel and after several days of unsuccessful search, they decided to return empty-handed. There was, in fact, no ship whatsoever. What Portman heard was actually the explosion and subsequent eruptions of the Krakatoa volcano, one of the most lethal known to man and whose fascinating history is also detailed here. As a fact: the Krakatoa is located about 2500 kilometers from North Sentinel and the Andaman. "(2)

According to the London Morning Post, dated 06 July 1881, Portman delivered a review of the "paper" titled "The Andaman Islands and the Andamanese"  at the Royal Asiatic Society, 22 Albermarle Street, Piccadilly.

Supporting Docs:

Portman Photo

A History of Our Relations with the Andamanese, MV Portman, Sup Gov Printing, India, 1899



(Davidson Laboratory)---A zoom in around the island where the young missionary lost his life on November 21st at the hands of hostile, superstitious natives from the Stone Age who inhabit the small island reveals a startling surprise, a sunken ship on the northwest coast, in a shallow bay.

Lat: 11.593549N, Long: 92.212779E

  The ship is  the Panamanian flagged "Primrose" that sank back in 1981

There has been reports the arrows contained iron tips and this could be the source of those arrowheads. Who knows what else has been salvaged by the natives throughout the years from this sunken relic.

Followup expected on this discovery



(Davidson Lecture Hall)--  Magic, demons and witchcraft may have a greater role to play in the recent death by bow and arrow of the explorer-adventurer JA Chau turned purported "missionary." With a lack of understanding of the nature of the spiritual order of the North Sentinelese, the intruder set himself up for his own demise.

     A review of anthropologist Alfred Radcliffe-Brown's own experience with the natives of the Andaman Islands  may reveal the mind of the Stone Age inhabitants and their reaction to the appearance of Chau. Mistaken also may be the ethnographic assumption that the natives are "hostile" and choose to be left alone. Contrary to this anti-social interpretation is Radcliffe-Brown's findings that the natives consider only one other color than theirs as "white." There is no distinction between Indian, Chinese or European and this is employed in their belief of the spirits that inhabit the dense jungles of the islands. In Chapter 3 titled "Religious and Magical Belief," of his book, The Andaman Islanders, Radcliffe-Brown gives a compelling argument of the natives' understanding of these spirits,

   "One of the most common statements is they are light or white skinned. ..There is a common belief that the spirits of both the jungle and the sea, carry about with them lights, which several men and women have claimed to have seen.", (1)

Had Chau in his possession a flashlight or a light from a mobile phone, he would have easily been mistaken as a jungle or sea spirit. In addition, the fact that his body was found on the beach is consistent with the belief of the natives,

Another reference to the light carried after dark relates to the moon,
"A belief about the moon which is found in all the tribes, both of the North and the South, is that he will be very angry if there is any fire, or any bright light, visible when he rises in the evening shortly after sundown." (1a)

Hence the decision to punish the intruder may have been to placate Maia Ogar,  the Moon. The moon was a waxing gibbous on November 21.

" There is a belief that mortals wandering by themselves have been captured by the spirits...all contact with the spirits of the jungle and the sea, or with the spirit of a dead man, is dangerous. ..There is a belief that the spirits feed on the flesh of the dead men or women. The jungle spirits eat those who are buried on land, and the Jurua devour those who are drowned or who are lost at sea."(1)

Hence, by executing the explorer on the beach, the body is far away from the village and can be considered an offering to the sea spirits, responsible for disasters such as cyclones and tsunamis.
Other reports indicate the arrows used  have iron arrowheads and a reference to this is made at The Secret Museum of Mankind,

"Bows and arrows are used by the Andamanese for killing land animals and fish, and detachable harpoons in the pursuit of turtle and sharks. These natives are employed by the Port Blair authorities against the wild tribes who have a habit of killing the convicts settled on the land for the sake of the iron ring round their neck, which is useful for tipping arrows" (2)

     John Allen Chau, according to the Radcliffe-Brown interpretation, because he was "white," was mistaken for a mortal who had been possessed by jungle spirits and carrying the telltale light of the spirits, a flashlight or cellphone, was dangerous and had to be eliminated. Ignorance was the motive, not on the part of the Sentinelese, but on the part of the missionary who failed to understand the deep seated religious-magical beliefs of the islanders.

Supporting Docs:

(1)  The Andaman Islanders
(1a)  The Moon--ref to (1)
(2) AR Radcliffe-Brown photo:,
Cambridge Press, 1922, Pages 138-140
(3)  The Secret Museum of Mankind (including photo)

Wednesday, November 21, 2018



(The Scullery)

Following locations and photos of American adventurer recently victim of bow-arrow attack by hostile natives on faraway Bay of Bengal island--


Recent Interview--

Supporting Docs_





(The Scullery)---Following more details of the bow-and-arrow execution of American John Allen Chau on remote North Sentinel Island, Bay of Bengal, Nov 17, 2018.

Times of India with more details:

Fishermen arrested: Saw Jampo, Saw Taray, Saw Watson, M Bhumi, Saw Remmis and (friend of deceased) "Alexander."

Followup of story in Times Now News--

As per the police, after his return to the town, Chau went to stay with his friend, 28-year-old Alexander K, till November 14. It was during this visit when Alexander introduced Chau to a fisherman, identified as one Saw Jampo through one Saw Remmis.

Supporting Documents-



(The Colony)-- Reports now coming in over the wire of casualty on remote, backward island south of India somewhere, this in from Reuters--

PORT BLAIR, Nov 21 (Reuters) - An American visiting one of the islands in India's remote cluster of Andaman and Nicobar has been killed by a group of hunter-gatherers who live there isolated from the outside world, two police officials said on Wednesday.
The North Sentinel Island is out of bounds for visitors, and is home to the Sentinelese community, who allegedly killed the American, identified as John Allen Chau, after he was illegally ferried there by fishermen, the officials added.

Background clipping from the NY Daily News, 1981,

"...islands inhabited by aborigines and former convicts of a penal colony..."



Sunday, November 18, 2018



(West Wing)--Text of the exchange between President Trump and CNN reporter Jim Acosta tells us a great deal not necessarily about why the press pass was revoked, but also about the nature of the purported "invasion, real or not. Bringing the question back to the forefront, is it an "invasion?"


The Opening Salvo-- rapid exchange

ACOSTA: Uh, in the midterms,
PRESIDENT: Here we go...
ACOSTA: If you don't mind, Mr. President...
PRESIDENT: Come on...
ACOSTA: This caravan was an "invasion.."

PRESIDENT: I consider it to be an invasion
ACOSTA: Mr. President, the caravan was not an invasion, it's a, it's a group of migrants moving up from Central America towards the border with the US,
PRESIDENT: Thank you for telling me that, I appreciate it.
ACOSTA: Why did you, why did you characterize it as such,
PRESIDENT: Because I considered it an invasion, you and I have a difference of opinion..
ACOSTA: But do you think you demonized immigrants
PRESIDENT: Not at all, not at all...
ACOSTA: During the election to try to..
PRESIDENT: Not at all, I want them to come into the country, they have to come in legally. You know they have to come in and (…) through a process. I want it to be a process and I want people to come in and we need the people
ACOSTA: Your campaign
PRESIDENT: No wait, you know why we need the people because we have hundreds of companies moving in and we need the people.
ACOSTA: They're hundreds of miles away, they are hundreds and hundreds of miles away.
PRESIDENT: You know why..

ACOSTA That's not an invasion.
PRESIDENT: Honestly, you know what, honestly, I think you should let me run the country, you run CNN and if you did it well, your ratings would be much better.
PRESIDENT  That's enough...

The INTERN stands up and begins the process of removing the microphone INTERN attempts to remove the microphone.
ACOSTA: Pardon me, Ma'am...
INTERN sits back down
ACOSTA  fields another question, concerning the Russian investigation , the PRESIDENT does accommodate the reporter with a reply, calling it a "hoax."... The confrontation becomes hostile and the rest is history.

First: The President does respond to the reporter's inquiries, although it may not have been what the reporter wanted to hear.
Second: Do we get a sense from this interaction between the reporter and the President that there  is a degree of truth to the characterization of the migrant caravan as an "invasion?"

INVASION (definition, Oxford)
An instance of invading a country or region with an armed force.
1.1 An incursion by a large number of people or things into a place or sphere of activity.
1.2 An unwelcome intrusion into another's domain.

According to the definition, the caravan could be characterized as an "invasion" but since it hasn't intruded into the United States, it is an invasion of Mexico.
Consider what has been reported since the lead components reached Tijuana. Many went to the beach and were confronted by locals who didn't want them there, fights broke out. (2)

Others claimed they didn't want to go to the sports arena shelter provided, calling it "jail."
Several were deported for smoking marijuana, others arrested for hopping the border fence.
 Hundreds are being processed with no hope of gaining their objective of asylum in the United States
 in the immediate future.

Irineo Mujica, member of the civil association Pueblos Sin Frontera,  "they would call the consulates of Honduras, El Salvador and Guatemala to gather documentation." (3) There appeared to be no effort beforehand to accommodate officials at the border and the organizers were lapse in their responsibility to assure migrants success.

ONE OTHER NOTE: The reference about "we need the people" because hundreds of companies are moving into the country, needs verification. It seems to be rationalization, a middle ground for the argument in favor of migration, promoting it but not in the current condition of "invasion."



Friday, November 16, 2018



Viewpoint discrimination is a form of content discrimination particularly disfavored by the courts. ... Because the government is essentially taking sides in a debate when it engages in viewpoint discrimination, the Supreme Court has held viewpoint-based restrictions to be especially offensive to the First Amendment.

Now for a case of "reverse viewpoint discrimination"--

.. The main argument here was that the mail system was not a public venue

Wednesday, November 14, 2018

#MACRON DOES ENGLISH---Fusillade from FS Charles de Gaulle Carrier---DIPLOMACY, NOT TWEETS, NOT VASSALS


(Cote d'Azur)--The French President did not drop his rifle and hide behind the Maginot Line in response to recent criticism from the US President. Rather, he chose to tell it like he sees it in something Mr. Trump can understand, English. This report from Sylvie Corbet for the Associated Press,

"the French don't expect from me to answer to tweets."

"To be honest, I don't do diplomacy or politics through tweets and comments,"

"Diplomacy is not made through tweets but through bilateral discussions,"

                                       (Photo: The Times UK)

Benjamin Griveaux, French government spokesman, 

"We were commemorating the assassination of 130 of our compatriots three years ago in Paris and Saint-Denis, and so I will reply in English: 'Common decency' would have been appropriate", 

President Macron added, from the deck of the aircraft carrier,

                                                             (Photo: Agency France Press)

"At every moment of our history, we were allies, so between allies, respect is due,"

"I don't think the French expect me to respond to tweets but to continue this important history,"

Supporting Documents:

(1) Associated Press, Sylvie Corbet,  Nov 14, 2018
(2) AFP,



(Camp Donna Messhall)-- Following the Secretary of Defense's visit to the Forward Operation Base near McAllen today, it brought to life once again a very illustrious time in American history and its relation to its neighbor to the south. In fact, the General may have his facts a bit crossed as to who sent troops to the border and what happened next.

Washington Post (Paul Sonne Nov 14, 2018)--

During the flight to Texas, Mattis described the operation as a “moral and ethical mission to support our border patrolmen” and cited previous military operations on the border, dating back to President Woodrow Wilson’s deployment of the U.S. Army there to counteract Mexican revolutionary Pancho Villa’s forces. (1) 

President Taft, in 1911, was the first to address the issue of the border with the deployment of three brigades to Texas and elsewhere:  (2)

The United States incursion into Mexico in 1916 was a result of a raid by Villa's forces into New Mexico in March and was led by General Pershing by orders of President Wilson.

The incursion into Mexico in pursuit of Villa was what General Mattis referred to, not the border buildup by President Taft many years earlier. Was this a Freudian slip, a giveaway of some dark plans to invade Mexico in pursuit of some new threat, the ghost of Pancho Villa perhaps? Stay up to date on the story on R2A...

Supporting Documents

(2) New York Times, 08 March, 1911.
(3) Salt Lake Telegram,   January 18, 1916

Tuesday, November 13, 2018

#WSJ SLEAZY AD CAMPAIGN---Trashing The President on Facebook-- "LET'S GET STARTED..!!"


(The Street)---The Wall Street Journal has been running a sleazy, tacky ad relating some sordid affairs the President supposed  had with various ladies of loose morals. True or not, two things happened when the ad occurred on my newsfeed at Facebook.

First, I filed a complaint with Facebook tagging the ad "offensive" since it not just portrayed a lack of character on the part of the President, but on those who were pushing the news, and the ad, as well. I am not interested in the President's love life, only my own and those who get off on that sort of thing have just one word to describe them, "creepy." Here is Facebook's response to the complaint, (I will not publish a copy of the ad)

What happened next is as bizarre as the ad itself. I sent a message to the WSJ stating,
"This is beneath WSJ standards by a wide margin,"

and here's the reply

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Let's get started.!!

What I have to say to that, I will not say...

Sunday, November 11, 2018

#RSJ108--Journalism Challenge 005--Image as Type--UNIVERSITY OF NEVADA, RENO FALL 2018



PART A  Design

Part B: Documentation

Photo Objective?

     Reno in 1958: African-Americans were barred from downtown casinos excluding those on East Commercial Row such as the New China Club, Henry's Corner Bar and others along Lake Street. In 1958, African-American Ruby Lee Roberts was crowned "Keno Queen" in front of the New China Club.  (Photo from Reno Gazette Journal, Sept 18, 2016)
     The first photo from the Reno Gazette Journal  on Oct 04, 1958 shows Miss Roberts with New China Club owner Bill Fong on her left and gold medal winner Jesse Owens, who participated in the 1936 Berlin Olympics in Hitler's Nazi Germany, on her right. The second photo is sepia toned, image opacity 44%. Clipping mask letters for "New China" were individually set. The glyph is TW Cen MT Condensed Extra Bold, [R,G,B = 30, 175, 157]; size=1000 pt, opacity 50%.

Does this project achieve results?

"If Arizona is the Alabama, Nevada is the Mississippi of the West and Utah is the Georgia,"  Dorea Pittman (NAACP) 1964

     Ethnic minorities had a place in Nevada history and it wasn't just on Commercial Row. Long gone are those casinos, with them went segregation as it existed in the Biggest Little City. Bill Fong, New China Club owner, was constantly criticized for alleged racial inequality, all of which were unfounded. He employed minorities in his casino when they weren't allowed to work in the white casinos around the corner on Virginia Street. This small part of northern Nevada history has many inequality chapters, this is just one of them.

Saturday, November 10, 2018


Brief history of
The article Hayes worked on was the following
1992--State of Network TV Notes--1.) Patent
infringement suits force color TV off air in 1988.
Court battles between networks, VCR manufacturers.
All TV broadcasts in black and white until court
differences solved.-stolen recording parts from CCA
(Communications Corp of America) largest
manufacturer of TVs abnd VCRs) turn up in VCR
company units.
2.)Live TV broadcasts prohibited under court
injunction-restraining order. a.) "Blackout-radii"
for major sporting events b.) 1988 winter olympics
in Tokyo--Jap govt. forbids live TV coverage in
protest of American nuclear navy presence in Japan.
c.) NFL-USFL contract breach suits and team
abandonment of stadiums force 1990 shutdown of NFL.
3.) VCR, home computer systems virtually replaced
commercial net TV after 1986 deregulation by FCC
drastically reduced the prices of home-in-tech-
hardware. (continued)

(net TV cont.)
4.) "File Footage"--as a result of the restrictions
imposed on television broadcasts, by 1989 there
were few sporting events on TV and everything else
was black and white reruns of ancient stuff like
"Sgt. Bilko" and "I Love Lucy." The only way the
nets were staying in business was through daily
news broadcasts, in black & white, telecast live.
The typical news telecast couldn't use the "Live-
action" camera though and were forced to use pre-
court ruling "file-footage" that would accompany
the narrator by the news-caster. File...

Saturday, October 27, 2018

CH203.1002-ESSAY #002--African-American Struggle in the Post-Reconstruction Era--U. OF NEVADA, RENO, FALL 2018

University of Nevada, Reno
Dr. S. Pasqualina
Fall 2018     28 Oct 18
James C. L’Angelle

African-American Struggle in the Post-Reconstruction Era

     Progress does not always come easily. Take for instance, the opposing views of Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois as to the course of the advance of African-Americans in the United States at the dawn of the 20th century. The former insisted that his race should apply itself to trades and conciliation, reconciliation, with the nation’s white population, namely in the South.  The latter argued that brains not brawn would be deliverance for emancipated slaves.. The former founded the Colored Normal School in Tuskegee, Alabama in 1881; the latter the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909 .  Washington’s “practical” outlook for African-Americans as the 1800s came to a close was an emphasis on manual skills, thus the normal school devoted its curriculum to that aspect. Dubois’ “idealistic” vision for African-Americans was one of education beyond labor, in other fields such as law and political involvement. A showdown of the two was inevitable, did the polarity benefit or impede progress for post-Reconstruction African-Americans?

     Backdrop for the clash of ideals was the Industrial Revolution of the late 19th century. In Atlanta, an exposition allowed the skills acquired by blacks attending the Tuskegee Normal School to be put on display, it’s founder delivered a monumental speech at the fair. Conciliation appeared to be the tone of the speech, at least it was interpreted that way; in other words do what the Negroes had been doing all along, submitting to the Southern whites. Superficial at best, this interpretation became a catalyst for  intellectual blacks who, led by WEB Dubois, placed blame for lack of intellectual progress squarely on BT Washington’s philosophy. In his speech, on September 18, 1895, Washington made it clear that cooperation was the key to integration,
     “To those of the white race who look to the incoming of those of foreign birth and strange tongue and habits for the prosperity of the South, were I permitted, I would repeat what I say to my own race. ‘Cast down your bucket where you are.’” (1)
The “bucket” metaphor was used throughout his speech and it alludes to assimilation, not alienation, of Negroes into Southern white culture. Whether it was the accommodationist  attitude or possibly plain resentment that caused Dubois’ negative reaction can only be surmised from a close reading of his rebuttal. However, WEB Dubois was not the first to criticize Washington’s desire for working, in the fields and factories, to win the hearts and minds of Southern whites.
     William H. Ferris, an African-American Yale graduate, as early as January, 1898 in a Washington Bee article, found troubling consequences for Washington’s philosophy,
     “Mr. Ferris held that Booker T. Washington's love was not the love of benevolence not a Christlike love but Booker T. Washington's love for the white man of the south was the love of complacency, it was a slave's love, a boy's love, the love that kisses the hand that smites one.” (2)
As if a personal affront to the dignity and intelligence of Northern blacks, Washington is put down by Ferris and those who ultimately became the ideological leaders of the “other” progressive effort in African-American culture, The Niagara Movement, organized by Dubois in 1905. (3)  By January, 1898, Dubois had taken up the refutation of the Washington philosophy of accommodation with an essay published in The Annals of the American Academy, titled  “The Study of the Negro Problems.”
     "A visitor to a great Negro school in the South catches the inspiration of youth, studies the work of graduates, and imbibes the hopes of teachers and immediately infers from the situation of a few hundred the general condition of a population numbering twice that of Holland.” (4)
Dubois’ reference to the “great Negro school” probably meant the Tuskegee normal school although there were others in what, at the time, was known not just as the “Black Belt” but also the “Cradle of the Confederacy.” His rather derogatory comparison to the population of Holland seemed quite out of place since it would have been just as appropriate to refer to the number of African-Americans in the South. Here is where a close reading is useful in determining whether there was more than just a difference of opinion or plain jealousy involved in Dubois’ tone for rejection of the Washington philosophy for progress.
     Dubois was a Harvard graduate, by poor Southern Negro standards, born with a silver spoon in his mouth. Washington was an emancipated slave who, once he was given the assignment to create a normal school in the Black Belt, found nearly insurmountable odds against its success when incorporated on July 4th, 1881. Reading his autobiographical account of the struggle in the early days of the school, it is one of remarkable effort for not just the students, but the teachers as well. The initial students were the teachers, they rejected manual labor to construct housing and classrooms. The students studied at night because they worked ten hours a day knee deep in mud to make bricks to sell in town. Progress was slow if any at all, money was scarce if any at all. Toothbrushes were shared by students, a single fork at the dinner table was shared by the family. (5)
Exceptional progress had been made in just a few short years at the normal school, as reported in the Alabama Herald & Times, December 23, 1885,
     “ During these 4 years 500 acres of land have been secured, 2 large buildings (one three story frame, costing $6,500, and one four story brick, costing $11,000,) have been put up, besides one-half dozen smaller buildings.  Industries established are farming, carpentry, painting, printing, poultry raising, sewing, laundry work and brick-making. 700,000 bricks have been made by the students for one of the new buildings and other purposes. “ (6)
Dubois, in his “Of the Training of Black Men” essay of 1903, took a negative view of the normal school’s development,
     “Meantime, starting in this decade, but especially developing from 1885 to 1895, began the industrial revolution of the South.”
Dubois added a quote in the essay from a “prominent Southern journal” but failed to acknowledge the source,
     “The experiment that has been made to give the colored students classical training has not been satisfactory...The whole scheme has proved a waste of time, efforts, and money of the state.” (7)
Noting indeed that the industrial revolution had begun in the South, and the need for labor to fuel it, Dubois ignored the strides made at the normal technical schools citing an unknown source that rejected progress for the African-American seeking to work his way out of the economic dilemma of post-Reconstruction.  Consistency didn’t seem to be a concern of Dubois as prior to his harsh criticism of the normal school charter, in 1895, as reported in the Des Moines Bystander, he delivered a “Creed for the New Negro,” which in its 6 point plan, included,
     “Industrial training and cooperation, and the formation of habits of steady, honest, manual toil, saving of earnings and providence, in order that the race may become self-supporting, and may aid in the development of Africa.” (8)
     Somewhere down the line, Dubois lost faith in the technical school approach to deliver African-Americans from the poor existence they had known following the end of the Civil War up until the turn of the century. It was possibly his Ivy League education, surrounded by colleagues with similar Niagara Movement worldviews. To make it personal as did others, by undermining Booker T. Washington’s  achievements, seemed unprofessional considering his education. Did it create a stigma for blacks to reject working in the fields and factories? Possibly. Did it make it difficult for African-Americans to integrate into the Southern white man’s way of life?  Probably. What had started as a great enterprise to put Negroes to work in trades became a target of political and intellectual criticism, even though the fruits of labor were obvious at the time. Although progress could be weighed by success, it was countered by stubborn refusal of some to take it at face value.

Supporting Documents:
Address at Opening of the Atlanta Exposition, 1895.  Five Hundred Years,  Casper, Davies, Jong, 2016, p. 150
Booker T. Washington, His False Theories Exposed by a Yale Graduate,  Washington Bee, 08 January, 1898.
The Niagara Movement,
The Study of the Negro Problem, WEB Dubois, The Annals of the American Academy,  Jan, 1898, p. 13
Up from slavery: An autobiography, by Booker Taliaferro Washington, 1901,
The Tuskegee Normal School, Alabama Herald and Times, 23 Dec 1885
Of the Training of Black Men, WEB Dubois, 1903, FYH p. 162-163
A Creed for the New Negro, WEB Dubois, Des Moines Bystander, 13 Dec 1895